Google is a privately held company founded by two Stanford graduates, Larry Page and Sergey Brin in 1998. Dr. Eric Schmidt, the CEO joined in 2001, and by the end of the year, the company had shown a profit.
Google Search Tools
Google has a comprehensive and highly developed technology, a straightforward interface and a wide-ranging array of search tools which enable the users to access a variety of information online easily. Google users can browse the web and find information in various languages, retrieve maps, stock quotes and read news, search for a long lost friend using the phonebook listings available on Google for all of US cities and surf the 3 billion odd web pages on the internet!
Google’s technology can be accessed from any conventional desktop PC as well as from various wireless platforms such as WAP and i-mode phones, handheld devices and other such Internet-equipped gadgets.
The web search technology offered by Google is often the technology of choice of the world’s leading portals and websites. It has also benefited the advertisers with its unique advertising program that does not hamper the web surfing experience of its users but still brings revenues to the advertisers.
When you search for a particular keyword or a phrase, most of the search engines return a list of a page in order of the number of times the keyword or phrase appears on the website. Google web search technology involves the use of its indigenously designed PageRank Technology and hypertext-matching analysis which makes several instantaneous calculations undertaken without any human intervention. Google’s structural design also expands simultaneously as the internet expands.
The results page also displays a link to ‘similar pages’ which uses the GoogleScout technology to explore the web for related pages. It is particularly helpful if you have hit upon a page which has relevant content, but you want something similar but more.
Safe Search Option
Google provides a SafeSearch option to filter pornographic contents from its results page. It is especially useful for shared computers which need to be protected for children surfing the Internet. Google’s technology tries to check keywords and phrases, URLs and Open Directory categories and eliminates these from the search results.
Sometimes, a webmaster might program the server in such a way that it returns different content to Google than it returns to regular users, which is often done to misrepresent search engine rankings. This process is referred to as cloaking as it conceals the actual website and returns distorted webpages to search engines crawling the site. It can mislead users about what they’ll find when they click on a search result. Google highly disapproves of any such practice and might place a ban on the website which convicted of cloaking.
Fully Automatic Search Engine
Google is primarily a fully-automatic search engine with no human-intervention involved in the search process. It utilizes robots known as ‘spiders’ to crawl the web on a regular basis for new updates and new websites included in the Google Index. This robot software follows hyperlinks from site to site. Google does not require that you should submit your URL to its database for inclusion in the index, as it is anyway done automatically by the ‘spiders.’ However, manual submission of URL can be made by going to the Google website and clicking the related link. One important thing here is that Google does not accept payment of any sort for site submission or improving page rank of your website. Also, submitting your site through the Google website does not guarantee to list in the index.
Page Rank Technology
PageRank technology involves the use of an equation which comprises of millions of variables and terms and determines an accurate measurement of the significance of web pages and calculated by solving an equation of 500 million variables and more than 3 billion terms. Unlike some other search engines, Google does not calculate links but utilizes the great link structure of the web as an organizational tool. When the link to a Page, lets say Page B is clicked from a Page A, then that click is attributed as a vote towards Page B on behalf of Page
Quintessentially, Google calculates the importance of a page by the number of such ‘votes’ it receives. Not only that, but Google also assesses the importance of the pages that are involved in the voting process. Consequently, pages that are themselves ahead in ranking and are important in that way also help to make other pages important. One thing to note here is that Google’s technology does not involve human intervention in any way and uses the inherent intelligence of the internet and its resources to determine the ranking and importance of any page.
Google takes a snapshot of each page it examined as it crawls the web and stores or caches them as a back-up in case the original page is unavailable. This cached link always displays the page in the same manner as it was indexed and this is used by Google to match the relevancy of the page to the query submitted by the user. The “Cached” link will be missing for sites that have not been indexed, as well as for sites whose owners have requested Google not to cache their content.
Google has a built-in calculator function which can be used to calculate mathematical expressions involving basic arithmetic, more complicated math, units of measure and conversions, physical constants and even hexadecimal and binary numbering systems. You can simply enter the expression you’d like evaluated in the search box and hit the Enter key or click the Google Search button.
Google has a very simple 3-step procedure in handling a query submitted in its search box.
- When the query is submitted, and the enter key is pressed, the web server sends the query to the index servers. Index server is exactly what its name suggests; it consists of an index much like the index of a book which displays where is the particular page containing the queried term is located in the entire book.
- After this, the query proceeds to the doc servers, and these servers retrieve the stored documents. Page descriptions or “snippets” are then generated to suitably describe each search result.
- These results are then returned to the user in less than a second!
Approximately once a month, Google update their index by recalculating the Pagerank of each of the web pages that they have crawled. The period during the update is known as the Google dance.
During this time, the search results fluctuate; sometimes minute-by-minute. It is because of these fluctuations that the term, Google Dance, was coined. The dance usually takes place sometime during the last third of each month.
Google has two other servers that can be used for searching. The search results on them also change during the monthly update, and they are part of the Google dance. For the rest of the month, fluctuations sometimes occur in the search results, but they should not be confused with the actual dance. They are due to Google’s fresh crawl and to what is known “Everflux.”
Google has two other searchable servers apart from Google. They are www2.google.com and www3.google.com. Most of the time, the results on all three servers are the same, but during the dance, they are different.
For most of the dance, the rankings that can be seen on www2 and www3 are the new rankings that will transfer to www when the dance is over. Even though the calculations are done about 40 times, the final rankings can be seen from very early on. This is because, during the first few iterations, the calculated figures merge to being close to their final figures.
You can see this with the Pagerank Calculator by checking the Data box and performing some calculations. After the first few iterations the search results on www2 and www3 may still change, but only slightly.
During the dance, the..